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Sual: Peygamber Efendimiz (s.a.v)'in İngilizceyle Hayatı hakkında bir yazı yazar mısınız ? ?
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Hz. MOHAMMED (S.A.V.)
Hz Mohammed (SAV) was born in Mecca, in 571. He was from Benisahim branch of the Koreish the most privileged tribe of Mecca and Arabia. His father was the leader of Koreish tribe and Mecca the son of Abdulmuttalip, Abdullah. His mother was Amine, daughter of Vehb bin Abd Menaf from the Zuhre branch of Koreish tribe. Hz Mohammed (SAV) lost his father before his birth and lost his mother when he was 6 years old. Abdulmuttalip had taken care of him until his death. After his grandfather’s death, his Uncle Ebu Talip took Hz. Mohammed (SAV). He had to be a shepherd in 10-12 years old. He had a well-protected life, although he faced with very difficult situations. He was famous for his honesty. Therefore he won everybody’s appreciation and he was called as “Mohammed El-Emin” (Reliable Mohammed) in his youth
Hz Mohammed (SAV) went to Syria with his uncle when he was young. His uncle was tradesman. After that, he accepted to manage the business of Hz Hatice bin Huveylid a rich widow. Hz. Hatice was 40 and Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was 25 years old when they got married. When he was 40 years old some changes occurred in his life. At that time, he preferred to escape from the crowds and isolate himself. In this period, he usually went to the Hira Mountain. He spent his time in a cave, thinking. The first revelation was brought by The Archangel Gabriel and was the verses of Koran begins with “Ikra”. Hence, Hz. Mohammed (SAV) returned to his home with a great excitement and told his wife to conceal herself. He told the event and read the verses to his wife. Hz. Hatice believed him and accepted Islam. After that he told Hz. Ebubekir, Hz. Ali and Zeyd (his slave who had been freed) that he was the prophet. All of them believed and converted to Islam.
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was explaining his propethood to the people that he trusted. The second revelation came three years later. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) declared that he is the Prophet by the command of the Allah to the people of Mecca. First, The chiefs of Koreish tribe did not accept him. But, Islam was diffusing among the poor and the slaves. Hence, the Koreish leaders disturbed by Mohammed strength and pressured him and his believers. Islam was against their idols and their wealth and privilege were in danger. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) continued to diffuse Islam everywhere. Some of the Moslems who could not have bare the tortures and pressure had immigrated to Abyssinian, by the permission of Hz. Mohammed (SAV).
One of the important events in Mecca period was “Mirac”. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) went to Mescid-i Aksa in Jerusalem. He declared that he ascended to sky with the angels and ascended to the God. This event led the Koreish leaders to behave very harsh. They accused Hz. Mohammed (SAV) by being a liar. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) realised that, it was very difficult to spread Islam in Mecca and decided to leave the city. He went to Taif but, the people of Taif influenced by the Koreish tribe swore him and their children threw stones to him
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) secretly talked to some tribe leaders came to Mecca from Medina in order to go for Hac(Pilgrim). They decided to immigrate from Mecca to Medina. Koreish leaders learnt that and wanted to kill Hz. Mohammed (SAV) in order to prevent the spreading of Islam in Medina. They have selected a person from each family and sent these people to kill Hz. Mohammed (SAV). But, Hz. Mohammed (SAV) learnt this event and went to his way to Medina with Hz. Ebu Bekir. Hz. Mohammed (SAV) and Hz. Ebu Bekir hidden in Sevr cave for 3 days. They arrived to Kuba near Medina on 20th September, 622. He met with the people of Medina and built the first mosque of the world. He worked in the construction with his hands
After 14 days, he begun his journey to Medina and he prayed his namaz in Benisalim located between Kuba and Medina. He entered the people welcomed him with love. He taught the rules of Islam to the Moslems and also he organised the political, military, and administrative issues. He was the Prophet and the leader. He sent ambassadors to the tribes and invited them to Islam. Also he sent governors and judges to the places that had accepted Islam
Hz. Mohammed (SAV) was strict about protection of the Islam. He made military regulations. People of Mecca continued enmity. On the second year of the pilgrim the Bedir War was fought and the Moslems defeated their enemies. Meccans went to the Uhut Mountain with new forces and they attacked to the Moslem Army again. In this war, the uncle of Hz Mohammed (SAV), Hz Hamza and a lot of Moslem had martyred and Hz Mohammed (SAV) was injured. After this triumph, Mecca people took Hayber Jewish on their side and walked through Medina, in 627. Hz Mohammed (SAV) defended the city. The enemies went back because they could not have taken any result after twenty days of siege. After Hendek (Trench) War many tribes had accepted Islam. In 628, Hubeydiye Agreement was signed with Mecca. With this agreement Mecca had accepted the authority of Hz Mohammed (SAV). Next year, Moslems captured the Hayber Castle from the Jews. Hz Mohammed (SAV) marched through Mecca with an army composed of 10.000 soldiers, in 630. The Moslems settled in Mecca
Hz Mohammed (SAV) went to Hac with a 100.000 thousand people and read famous Farewell Sermon, in 632. This Sermon was explaining important principles of Islam. It included equivalence of people, women rights, forbidding of usury and blood feud, and a lot of social subjects. Hz Mohammed (SAV) turned back to Medina after Farewell Hac and he got ill suddenly. He died on 8th June 632 in the arms of his wife Ayse. He was buried in Hz Ayse’s room and that room was converted to a mausoleum
All three sons of Hz Mohammed (SAV) died before they got married. Among his four daughters only Fatma had a child, she was married with Ali
Hz Muhammed'in Hayatı İngilizce.
Muhammad (whose name means "highly praised") was born in Mecca in 571 AD. His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. The young orphan was then raised primarily by his uncle, for whom he worked as a shepherd. At age 9 (some sources say 12), he joined his uncle on a caravan to Syria.
As a young man, Muhammad worked as a camel driver between Syria and Arabia. Soon he established a career managing caravans on behalf of merchants. Through his travel first with his uncle and later in his career, Muhammad came into contact with people of many nationalities and faiths, including Jews, Christians and pagans.
At age 25, Muhammad was employed by Khadija, a wealthy Meccan widow 15 years his senior. The two were married, and by all accounts enjoyed a loving and happy marriage. Early records report that "God comforted him through her, for she made his burden light." Although polygamy was common practice at the time, Muhammad took no other wife than Khadija until her death 24 years later.
In his late 30s Muhammad took to regularly visiting a cave in Mount Hira, on the outskirts of Mecca, to seek solitude and contemplation. In 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad returned from one such visit telling his wife he had either gone mad or become a prophet, for he had been visited by an angel. The initially startled Khadija became his first convert.
Muhammad reported that while in a trance-like state, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "Proclaim!" But like Moses, Muhammed was a reluctant prophet. He replied, "I am not a proclaimer." The angel persisted, and the Prophet repeatedly resisted, until the angel finally overwhelmed Muhammad and commanded him:
Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created!
Created man from a clot of blood.
Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous,
Who teaches by the pen;
Teaches man what he knew not. (Qur'an 96:1-3)
After receiving Khadija's support, and additional angelic visits, Muhammad became confident he had indeed been chosen as the messenger of God and began to proclaim as he had been commanded.
Muhammad's message to his countrymen was to convert from pagan polytheism, immorality and materialism, repent from evil and worship Allah, the only true God. He was always careful to clarify his role in God's work - he was only a prophet. He was not an angel, he did not know the mind of God, he did not work miracles. He simply preached what he had received.
In the first three years of his ministry, Muhammad gained only 40 followers. And as his teachings threatened the Meccan way of life, both moral and economic, he and his followers experienced heavy persecution. It first took the form of mockery, but soon turned into open violence. Members of the small movement were stoned, covered in dirt as they prayed, beat with sticks, thrown into prison and refused service by merchants.
Persecution continued to increase until Muhammad received some welcome news: he had gained followers in the city of Yathrib, 280 miles north of Mecca. The city was in need of a strong leader, and a delegation from Yathrib proposed that Muhammad take the job. In return, they pledged to worship Allah only, obey Muhammad and defend him and his followers to the death. Allah revealed to Muhammed his approval of this arrangement, and Muhammad made plans to escape to Yathrib.
The leaders in Mecca heard of the planned escape, and attempted to prevent it. But Muhammad and his close friend Abu Bakr managed to make a narrow escape north out of the city, evading a Meccan search party and arriving safely in Yathrib. This event is celebrated by Muslims as the Hijira. The year in which it occurred, 622, is the date at which the Muslim calendar begins. Yathrib was renamed Medinat al-Nabi, "the City of the Prophet," and is now known simply as Medina, "the City."
In Medina, Muhammad proved himself an able politician and statesman as well as a prophet.
Exercising superb statecraft, he welded the five heterogenous and conflicting tribes of the city, three of which were Jewish, into an orderly confederation.... His reputation spread and people began to flock from every part of Arabia to see the man who had wrought this 'miracle.' (Smith, 230).
Battle for Mecca
After establishing himself in Medina and accomplishing the job he had been invited to do, the people of Medina began several years of battle with Muhammad's former home city. In 624, the Muslims won their first battle against the Meccans. As the latter had a much larger army, the former took the victory as a sign that God was on their side. However, a subsequent battle was not victorious, and Muhammad himself was wounded. But in 627, the Meccans attacked Medina, and Medina came out on top. The Prophet was not to lose again.
In 630, Muhammad and his forces marched to Mecca and defeated it. The Prophet rededicated the Ka'ba temple to Allah, witnessed the conversion to Islam of nearly the entire Meccan population, then returned to Medina. Muhammad died in 632, having conquered nearly all of Arabia for Islam.
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